Tang Survey Further Reading
The Ringtail Surgeonfish, Acanthurus blochii, an Indo-Pacific species that reaching 17 inches (45 cm) in length. Image by Robert M. Fenner.

The Ringtail Surgeonfish, Acanthurus blochii, an Indo-Pacific species that reaching 17 inches (45 cm) in length. Image by Robert M. Fenner.

By Robert M. Fenner

CORAL Magazine,
Volume 10, Number 4 (July/August 2013)


Blasiola, George C. 1988. Description, preliminary studies and probable etiology of head and lateral line erosion (HLLE) of the palette tang, Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and other acanthurids. Bull. of l’Institut oceanographique, Monaco. Spec. Pub. 5:255-263.

Blasiola, George C. 1990. A review of hole in the head disease of fish. FAMA 5/90.

Burgess, Warren E. 1973. Salts from the seven seas (on the Species Z. veliferum & Z. desjardinii. TFH 5/73.

Burgess, W.E. 1980. Surgeonfish and angelfish mimics. TFH 29(2):52-56, 58.

Burgess, Warren E., Herbert R. Axelrod & Raymond E. Hunziker III.1990. Atlas of Aquarium Fishes Reference Book, v. 1 Marine Fishes. T.F.H. Publications, NJ. 768pp.

Campbell, Douglas G. 1979. Fishes for the beginner, A guide for the new marine hobbyist, Parts three and four, Tangs. FAMA 1,2/79.

Chlupaty, Peter. 1979. Keeping the yellow tang. T.F.H. 7/89.

Colin, P.L.; Clavijo I.E. 1988. Spawning activity of fishes producing pelagic eggs on a shelf edge coral reef, southwestern Puerto Rico. Bull. Mar. Sci. vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 249-279.

Collins, Steve. 1995. Dietary control of HLLE in blue tangs. SeaScope Summer 95.

Debelius, H. 1975? Useful information on surgeon fish. Aquarium digest Intl. #29, pp 31-33., #31, pp 28-29.

Debelius, Helmut. 1993. Indian Ocean Tropical Fish Guide. Aquaprint Verlags, Germany.

Debelius, Helmut & Hans A. Baensch. 1994. Marine Atlas. Mergus, Germany. 1,215 pp.

Duarte, C.S.A. & P.A. Acero. 1988. Feeding behavior of the Acanthurus (Perciformes: Acanthuridae) fish genus in the Santa Marta region from the Colombian Caribbean. Rev. Biol. Trop. vol. 28, pp. 399-405. 1988.

Emmens, C.W. 1985 Surgeonfishes. TFH 1/85.

Fenner, Robert. 1996. Will the real powder brown tang please swim up? TFH 3/96.

Fenner, Robert. 1997. Unicorn tangs, genus Naso, family Acanthuridae. SeaScope v.14, Spring, 1997.

Fenner, Robert. 1998. The Conscientious Marine Aquarist. Microcosm, VT. 432pp.

Fenner, Robert. Surgeons, tangs, and Doctorfishes, family Acanthuridae. FAMA 12/00.

Fishelson, L., Montgomery, W.L., Myrberg, A.A. 1985. A unique symbiosis in the gut of tropical herbivorous surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae: Teleostei) from the Red Sea. Science (Wash.) vol. 229, no. 4708, pp. 49-51; 1985.

Fishelson, L., Montgomery, W.L., Myrberg, A.A. 1985. A unique symbiosis in the gut of tropical herbivorous surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae: Teleostei) from the Red Sea. Science (Wash.) vol. 229, no. 4708, pp. 49-51; 1985.

Fong, Jack. 2000. The Powder Blue Tang- hardy or delicate? FAMA 3/00.

Fouda, M.M. El Sayed, A.A. & Z.T. Zaki. 1988. Reproductive biology of a Red Sea Surgeonfish, C. striatus (Quoy& Gaimard, 1824). Proceedings of the Sixth Intl. Coral Reef Symposium. Vol. 2 pp. 679-683.

Guiasu, Radu C. & Richard Winterbottom. 1993. Osteological evidence for the phylogeny of recent genera of surgeonfishes (Percomorpha, Acanthuridae). Copeia 1993(2):300-312.

Herre, Albert W. 1928. Philippine Surgeonfishes and Moorish Idols. Philippine J. of Sci. 34(4) pp 403-478. Avail./TFH

Howe, Jeffrey C. 1991. Field observations of death feigning in the convict tang, Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus), with comments on the nocturnal color pattern in juvenile specimens. J. of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences VI(4):13-15.

Jones, Lawrence L.C. 1988. Care and maintenance of tangs in captivity. Part one: Food and feeding. FAMA 10/88. Part II. Behavior, FAMA 3/84.

Kent, M.I. and A.C. Olson. 1986. Interrelationships of a parasitic turbellarian, (Paravortex sp.) (Grafillidae, Rhabdocoela) and its marine fish hosts. Fish Pathol. 21:65-72. Lobel, Phillip S. 1984. The Hawaiian chevron tang, Ctenochaetus hawaiiensis. FAMA 3/84.

Kuiter, Rudi H.& Helmut Debelius. 2001. Surgeonfishes, Rabbitfishes and their Relatives. A Comprehensive Guide to Acanthuroidei. TMC Publishing, Chorleywood, UK.

Maisey, John G. 1996. Fossil surgeonfishes. TFH 4/96.

McKenna, Scott. 1987. Keeping the powder-blue surgeonfish. TFH 36(3):22-25, 27.

Meyer, K.D., Paul, V.J., Sanger, H.R. and S.G. Nelson. 1994. Effects of seaweed extracts and secondary metabolites on feeding by the herbivorous surgeonfish Naso lituratus. Coral Reefs 13(2):105-112.

Michael, Scott W. 1992. A guide to the tangs of the genus Zebrasoma. Seascope vol.9, Fall 1992.

Michael, S.W. 1995. Fishes for the marine aquarium, part 7. Tangs of the genus Zebrasoma. A.F.M. 4/95.

Michael, Scott W. 1998. Surgeonfishes; Meet their strict care requirements, or else… AFM 9/98.

Michael, Scott W. 1998. The surgeonfishes. Getting to the point- the species. AFM 10/98.

Michael, Scott W. 2003. Surgeonfish; they look sharp in a marine aquarium but are not always easy to keep. AFM 2/03

Montgomery, W.L., Myrberg, A.A., Fishelson, L. 1989. Feeding ecology of surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) in the northern Red Sea, with particular reference to Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forskaal). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. vol. 132 no.3 pp 179-207.

Moosleitner, Horst. 1992. The brown-eared surgeonfish: A meat eater! TFH 40(6):64-66.

Myrberg, A.A., Montgomery, W.L,. Fishelson, L. 1988. The reproductive behavior of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forskaal) and other surgeonfishes (fam. Acanthuridae) off Eliat, Israel. (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Ethology; vol. 79, no.1 pp. 31-61. 1988.

Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World. 3rd Ed. Wiley. 600pp.

Nelson, S.G. & S.D. Wilkins. 1988. Sediment processing by the surgeonfish C. striatus at Moorea, French Polynesia. J. of Fish Biology 32(6) 1988:817-824.

Nelson, S.G. & Y.M. Chiang. 1993. An exploratory analysis of the food habits of herbivorous surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) from French Polynesia. Proceedings of the Seventh Intl. Coral Reef Symposium, v. 2:920-926. Univ. of Guam Press.

Polunin, N.V.C., Harmelin-Vivien, M. & R. Galzin. 1995. Contrasts in algal food processing among five herbivorous coral-reef fishes. J. of Fish Biology 47(1995):455-465.

Purcell, S.W. & D.R. Bellwood. 1993. A functional analysis of food procurement in two surgeonfish species, Acanthurus nigrofuscus & C. striatus (Acanthuridae). Env. Biol. of Fishes 37(2) 1993:139-159.

Pyle, Richard L. 1990. The gem tang Zebrasoma gemmatum (Cuvier and Valenciennes). FAMA 8/90.

Pyle, Richard L. & Lisa A. Privatera. 1990. The black longnose tang Zebrasoma rostratum (Gunther). FAMA 4/90.

Randall, J.E. 1955. A revision of the surgeonfish genus Ctenochaetus, Family Acanthuridae, with descriptions of five new species. Zoologica 40:149-165.

Randall, J.E. 1955. A revision of the surgeonfish genera Zebrasoma and Paracanthurus. Pac. Sci. 9:396-412.

Randall, J.E. 1956 A revision of the surgeon fishes genus Acanthurus. Pac. Sci. 10:159-235.

Randall, J.E. 1975 Hawaiian fish profiles. ADI 3:2, pp 12,13.

Randall, John E. 1981. Palette surgeonfish, Paracanthurus hepatus. FAMA 3/81.

Randall, J.E. 1986. Acanthuridae; in Smith’s Sea Fishes. Springer-Verlag, Germany. pp. 811-823.

Randall, J. 1988. Three nomenclatorial changes in Indo-Pacific surgeonfishes (Acanthurinae). Pacific Science 41:54-61.

Randall, J.E. 1994. Unicornfishes of the subgenus Axinurus (Perciformes: Acanthuridae: Naso) with description of a new species. Copeia 1, 1994:116-124.

Randall, J.E.& L.J. Bell. 1992. Naso caesius, a new acanthurid fish from the central Pacific. Pacific Science 46(3):344-352.

Randall, J.E and K.D. Clements, 2001. Second revision of the surgeonfish genus Ctenochaetus (Perciformes: Acanthuridae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (32):33 p.

Ranta, Jeffrey A. 1996. Dealing with HLLS. TFH 1/96.

Recksiek, Conrad W., Appeldoorn, Richard S. and Ralph G. Turingan. 1991. Studies of fish traps as stock assessment devices on a shallow reef in south-western Puerto Rico. Fisheries Research 10(1991):177-197.

Sands, David. 1994. Superb surgeons. FAMA 10/94.

Shepherd, A.R. Dawson. 1978. Powder Blue Tang from Kenya. Marine Aquarist 8:5/78.

Smith, J.L.B. 1966. Fishes of the sub-family Nasinae with a synopsis of the Prionurinae. Ichthyological Bull. Rhodes Univ. 32:635-682.

Spencer, Gary C. 1973. The tang and I. Marine Aquarist 4(4):73

Winterbottom, R. 1993. Myological evidence for the phylogeny of recent genera of surgeonfishes (Percomorpha, Acanthuridae), with comments on the Acanthuroidei. Copeia 1993(1):395-414

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