Ornate Wrasse Breeding: Bonus Content and References

Exploring aquarium wrasse
aquaculture and breeding success with the

Text & images by Frank Baensch
CORAL, November/December 2016
pgs 38-50


Ahlstrom, E.H. and H.G. Moser. 1980. Characters useful in identification of pelagic marine fish eggs. CalCOFI Rep 21: 121–31.

Clavijo, l.E. and P.L. Donaldson. 1994. Spawning Behavior in the Labrid, Halichoeres bivittatus, on Artificial and Natural Substrates in Onslow Bay, North Carolina, with Notes on Early Life History. Bull Mar Sci 55 (2–3): 383–87.

Colin, P.L. 1982. Spawning and larval development of the hogfish, Lachnolaimus maximus (Pisces: Labridae). Fish Bull 80: 853–62.

De Silva, S. 2003. Carps. In: J.S. Lucas and P.C. Southgate (eds), Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, England.

Kimura, S. and T. Kiriyama. 1993. Development of eggs, larvae and juveniles of the labrid fish, Halichoeres poecilopterus, reared in the laboratory. Jpn J Ichthyol 39 (4): 371–77.

Sakai, Y., K. Karino, Y. Nakashima, and T. Kuwamura. 2002. Status-dependent behavioural sex change in a polygynous coral-reef fish, Halichoeres melanurus. J Ethol 20: 101–5.

Michael, S.W. 2009. Wrasses and Parrotfishes: The Complete Illustrated Guide to their Identification, Behaviors and Captive-Care. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, and Microcosm Ltd., Charlotte, VT.

On the Internet

Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network Magazine. First Breeding Success of Napoleon Wrasse and Coral Trout. http://library.enaca.org/AquacultureAsia/Articles/April-June-2004/10mfan-ezine-april04.pdf

Blue Reef Photography: http://www.bluereefphoto.org/blog

Cactus a Natural Oil Dispersant: http://news.usf.edu/article/templates/?z=0&a=4387

Farm Application of Wrasse. EcoFish Ballan Wrasse Project. Technical Leaflet:


Marine Aquarium Trade Data: https://aquariumtradedata.org/

Reef Builders: https://reefbuilders.com/2013/07/25/captive-bred-cleaner-wrasse

Rising Tide Breeds Hawaiian Cleaner Wrasse:

Rising Tide Conservation blog: http://risingtideconservation.blogspot.com/2015/02/early-success-with-Halichoeres-wrasse.html

Stier, A.C. et al. Larval dispersal drives trophic structure across Pacific coral reefs. Nat Commun 5: 5575, doi: 10.1038/ncomms6575 (2014).