World Aquarium News
Abstract Invasive species management depends not only on biological and economic issues but also on how governance institutions influence cooperation from networks of stakeholders. We use the “contingency” framework for network governance to analyze why eradication of invasive Spartina in San Francisco Bay has been more successful than many other eradication efforts. The core argument is that invasive Spartina features antecedent conditions that favor a centralized network as the best governance approach, as demonstrated by a quantitative survey of Spartina stakeholders. This centralized policy network, with a clearly defined core of actors with the expertise, authority, and resources, produces effective cooperation. [...]
Thu, Apr 20, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
In the first ecosystem-wide study of changing sea depths at five large coral reef tracts in Florida, the Caribbean and Hawai'i, researchers found the sea floor is eroding in all five places, and the reefs cannot keep pace with sea level rise. As a result, coastal communities protected by the reefs are facing increased risks from storms, waves and erosion. [...]
Thu, Apr 20, 2017
Source Coral Reef News from Science Daily
Abstract The exploitation status of marine fisheries stocks worldwide is of critical importance for food security, ecosystem conservation, and fishery sustainability. Applying a suite of data-limited methods to global catch data, combined through an ensemble modeling approach, we provide quantitative estimates of exploitation status for 785 fish stocks. Fifty-six percent (439 stocks) are below BMSY and of these, 261 are estimated to be below 80% of the BMSY level. While the 178 stocks above 80% of BMSY are conventionally considered “fully exploited,” stocks staying at this level for many years, forego substantial yield. Our results enable managers to consider more detailed [...]
Wed, Apr 12, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Abstract How should we meet the demand for wood while minimizing climate and biodiversity impacts? We address this question for tropical forest landscapes designated for timber production. We model carbon and biodiversity outcomes for four archetypal timber production systems that all deliver the same volume of timber but vary in their spatial extent and harvest intensity. We include impacts of variable deforestation risk (secure land tenure or not) and alternative harvesting practices (certified reduced-impact logging methods or not). We find that low-intensity selective logging offers both the best and the worst overall outcomes per unit wood produced, depending on whether certified reduced-impact [...]
Wed, Apr 12, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Abstract The paper “Are Brazil deforesters avoiding detection?” recently published in Conservation Letters by Richards et al. 2016 has critical shortcomings and conclusions based on biased and not very robust analyses. Here, we provide clarifications to some of the most critical points regarding the monitoring of land use changes in the Brazilian Amazon and related greenhouse emissions. Such clarifications are relevant to the readers of Conservation Letters and to a broader audience that rely on sound and robust science for a better management of environmental issues. [...]
Wed, Apr 12, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Fish provide a critical service for coral reefs by eating algae that can kill coral and dominate reefs if left unchecked. A new study, which analyzed the social feeding behavior of reef fish, suggests that overfishing not only removes vital algae-eaters, but it may cause remaining fish to eat less. [...]
Mon, Apr 10, 2017
Source Coral Reef News from Science Daily
Abstract Resource managers and policy makers have long recognized the importance of considering fisheries in the context of ecosystems; yet, movement towards widespread Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM) has been slow. A conceptual reframing of fisheries management is occurring globally, which envisions fisheries as systems with interacting biophysical and human subsystems. This broader view, along with a process for decision making, can facilitate implementation of EBFM. A pathway to achieve these broadened objectives of EBFM in the U.S. is a Fishery Ecosystem Plan (FEP). The first generation of FEPs was conceived in the late 1990s as voluntary guidance documents that Regional Fishery [...]
Sat, Apr 08, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Abstract The Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is one of the most threatened mammals on Earth. The only remaining individuals live as part of a small population isolated in a single protected area, Ujung Kulon National Park, Java, Indonesia. Despite almost a century of studies, little is known about the factors that affect Javan rhino demography and distribution. National park officials require such information to identify conservation strategies and track the success and failures of these efforts; translocating selected individuals to establish a second population has been considered, but the risks must be weighed. We show that the 2013 global population of [...]
Fri, Apr 07, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Abstract Behavioural change interventions are increasingly widely used in conservation. Several projects addressing rhino horn consumption were recently launched in Vietnam. We used key informant interviews, document analysis and marketing theory to explore their strategies for intervention design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. We developed a framework to evaluate whether they followed best practice and identify implementation challenges. Interventions could make greater use of key project design steps, including basing interventions on robust research to understand the behaviour in question, identifying the target audience whose behaviour interventions aim to change, and developing measures that can provide reliable evidence of success or not. [...]
Thu, Apr 06, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Scientists studying the Great Barrier Reef have made a breakthrough discovery that could protect one of the Seven Natural Wonders. Biologists believe they can use the powers of attraction to decimate one of the reef's fiercest enemies. [...]
Wed, Apr 05, 2017
Source Coral Reef News from Science Daily
Scientists have discovered a new species of worm-snail on a shipwreck in the Florida Keys. The new species, which is colorful and shoots mucus webs to trap food, is likely an invasive species from the Indo-Pacific and could have important coral reef conservation implications. [...]
Wed, Apr 05, 2017
Source Coral Reef News from Science Daily
Tue, Apr 04, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Abstract Wildlife trade is currently the most important and increasing source of vertebrate invasive species. However, exhaustive analyses of potential side effects of trade regulations on this pathway of introduction are lacking. We addressed this by combining environmental niche models and global trade data on parrots (Psittaciformes), one of the most widely traded and worldwide invasive taxa. We used the wild bird trade bans of United States (1992) and Europe (2005) as case-studies. Results showed that regional bans can generate geographic redirections in trade, with important consequences on worldwide invasion risk. While the amount of parrots traded internationally remained largely constant, [...]
Thu, Mar 30, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Abstract Artisanal fisheries are generally assumed to generate a lower fishing effort in comparison to the industrial sector. This study aims to comparing catch, fishing effort, and catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE) for each sector, using kWdays as a metric for fishing effort, and kg/kWdays for CPUE. The study, which covers West Africa (1950–2010), finds that the artisanal sector spends 4.7•109 kWdays/year versus 1.3•109kWdays/year by the industrial sector, due to increasing numbers and size of artisanal boats, which in Senegal and Ghana can exceed that of (smaller) industrial vessels. The artisanal total fishing effort increased by 10-fold between 1950 and 2010, in contrast to [...]
Thu, Mar 30, 2017
Source Conservation Letters
Abstract Policy makers are increasingly encouraging farmers to protect or enhance habitat on their farms for wildlife conservation. However, a lack of knowledge of farmers' opinions toward wildlife can lead to poor integration of conservation measures. We surveyed farmers to assess their perceptions of ecosystem services and disservices from perching birds, raptors, and bats – three taxa commonly targeted by conservation measures. The majority of farmers thought that perching birds and bats were beneficial for insect pest control and that raptors were beneficial for vertebrate pest control; however, fruit farmers viewed perching birds more negatively than did farmers growing other crops. [...]
Fri, Mar 24, 2017
Source Conservation Letters