CORAL Magazine’s Captive-Bred Marine Fish Species List for 2016

22 Dec, 2015

CORAL Magazine's Annual Report on the state of marine aquarium breeder efforts, with cultured Clown Trigger being sold by Quality Marine and raised by Biota Aquaculture, Palau. Image: Eli Fleishauer.

CORAL Magazine’s Annual Report on the state of marine aquarium breeder efforts, with cultured Clown Trigger being sold by Quality Marine and raised by Biota Marine, Palau. Image: Eli Fleishauer.

A CORAL SPECIAL REPORT: The State of the Marine Breeders’ Art 2016

by Tal Sweet and Matt Pedersen

CORAL Magazine’s Annual Listing of captive-bred marine aquarium fish species, current through early December 2015 – an excerpt from the January/February 2016 issue of CORAL Magazine – subscribe today!

“Why do we love lists?” asks Linton Weeks, a national correspondent for NPR Digital and author of an oft-quoted short essay, 10 Reasons Why We Love Making Lists. Benjamin Franklin was famous for his lists, including a roundup of synonyms for being drunk in colonial America (he stopped at 200). Lorenzo da Ponte, who wrote the libretti for Mozart’s operas, kept a tally of the women Don Giovanni slept with (by his score sheet, 2,063). And Johnny Cash included these things on one of his to-do lists:

  1. Not smoke
  2. Kiss June
  3. Not kiss anyone else

“Lists bring order to chaos,” argues Weeks, who says that assembling a public list can get people to reveal things for the first time, and that they set down “things we should remember.”

Author Tal Sweet speaking at a Marine Breeding Initiative Workshop. Image: Matt Pedersen.

Author Tal Sweet speaking at a Marine Breeding Initiative Workshop. Image: Matt Pedersen.

This rings true for CORAL’s annual list of marine aquarium–fish species that have been successfully bred and raised in captivity. A chronological collection of lists can also establish a history: the first captive-bred marine-fish list published by our sister publication, KORALLE, contained only 90 fishes. As we start 2016, our list hovers just over the 300-species mark. Not included are many fish species bred for consumption or to stock food fisheries, and we have not yet started a database of cultured aquarium invertebrates. Also missing from the list are at least four species that were bred in 2015 but whose breeders are not yet ready to trumpet their work publicly. Today, the number of fishes that have been successfully bred in captivity has grown to represent approximately 12.5 to 15 percent of the species available in the aquarium industry, and as 2015 drew to a close the vast majority of popular aquarium fish families had been bred.

“Lists can be as long or as short as necessary,” notes Weeks. We can illustrate the value of short lists by citing one very brief list of our own, containing just five entries: Lionfishes (Scorpaenidae), Hawkfishes (Cirrhitidae), Goatfishes (Mullidae), Squirrelfishes (Holocentridae), and the Moorish Idol (Zanclidae). It’s certainly not comprehensive, but if you want to try breaking new ground with a family of marine fishes in which a representative species has not been successfully bred, one of these may represent your best shot.

While 2014 seemed to be a year of “gathering momentum,” 2015 has turned out to be more of a deluge. Tremendous progress has been made with species that, just a few years ago, appeared to be nearly impossible to breed. Of special note, 2015 marked the first documented success with a butterflyfish, two wrasse species, and a surgeonfish (tang) — all of which represent groups of tremendous potential interest to the aquarium trade. We’ve published the full list of captive-bred species online this year, and all the new additions are listed here.

An accidental young hybrid of Flagfin and Goldflake Angels (Apolemichthys trimaculatus x A. xanthopunctatus) from Bali Aquarich. Image: Lemon Tea Yi Kai

An accidental young hybrid of Flagfin and Goldflake Angels (Apolemichthys trimaculatus x A. xanthopunctatus) from Bali Aquarich. Image: Lemon Tea Yi Kai


This list of new species emphasizes a shift in who is innovating; every achievement can be attributed to aquarists involved with commercial aquaculture facilities, research programs, or public aquariums. The notable exception would be Mike Hoang’s beautiful Featherduster Blenny, Hypleurochilus multifilis, were it not for the fact that his accomplishment occurred a couple of years earlier and only makes the list now because the species he was working with could not be identified until 2015. Hobbyist breeders are notably absent, having failed to breed any new species in 2015. In every prior year, hobbyists have been good for at least one, if not a few new species. But it wasn’t for lack of trying: When the Marine Breeding Initiative hosted its sixth annual MBI Workshop in 2015, it was attended by over 70 individuals from around North America. The MBI continues to lead the way in sharing captive breeding information with aquarists all over the world.

Some breeders elected to reexamine and refine species that, while not “new” to the captivebred list, had long been forgotten. Proaquatix wowed aquarists by making captive-bred Jackknife Fish, Equetus lanceolatus, commercially available. This species was first cultured decades ago, but hadn’t been revisited and has never been available to the public as a captive-bred offering. In addition to reviving past species, Tami Weiss of helped uncover and verify several species of seahorse and pipefish that have been successfully cultivated around the world in years past, but have never been included on our lists until now (you can see these species listed on the online master list).

Tom Bowling and Biota Marine of Palau led the charge of commercial producers, claiming success with nine new species never before seen as captive-bred fishes. Among the many new genera they reared, arguably the most attention-grabbing was the Clown Triggerfish (Balistoides conspicillum). Breeding this prized species in captivity is a dream that has haunted commercial breeders for decades. More importantly, although it was not the first captive-bred triggerfish ever, the Clown Trigger was the first to be supplied on a commercial scale (by Quality Marine) in the United States.

Bali Aquarich upped their angelfish game by adding three more new species to their list this year; they are currently the world’s leading supplier of captive-bred marine angelfishes. Bali also delighted the aquarium audience with the production of two unique large angelfish hybrids. The first, a hybrid between the Flagfin and Goldflake Angelfishes (Apolemichthys trimaculatus X A. xanthopunctatus) has been dubbed the “Faux Gold”; so far we’ve only been shown juveniles, which are mainly yellow in coloration. Outwardly more unique, the accidental hybrid of the Emperor and Annularis Angelfishes (Pomacanthus imperator X P. annularis) turned heads and, upon maturity, displayed a unique blending of traits from both parental species.

Commercial breeders based in the US have had a few successes of their own: Oceans, Reefs and Aquariums (ORA) is now producing the unusually small-for-its-genus and reef-safe Radial Filefish, Areichthys radiatus (see Rarities excerpt), as well as the Transparent Cave Goby, Fusigobius pallidus, and they surprised us with three other new accomplishments they’d not shared previously (see list, below).

Hawaiian Christmas Wrasse, popular aquarium fish bred for the first time by Frank Baensch.

Hawaiian Christmas Wrasse, popular aquarium fish bred for the first time by Frank Baensch.

Frank Baensch, known for his work at Reef Culture Technologies as one of the world’s pioneering angelfish breeders, finally broke the butterflyfish barrier with captive- bred Chaetodon kleinii. Although Baensch and Rising Tide had a few “near misses” in the preceding years, it was truly only a matter of persistence and time until the work paid off. Wrasses featured prominently this year; in the past Bali Aquarich accidentally reared several of the Cleaner Wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, the first aquarium-size captive-bred wrasse, but that was it for a while. Two more wrasses were cultured this year: Baensch bred Halichoeres ornatissimus and Kevin Barden became the first to breed the Melanurus Wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus. Barden’s work with the Rising Tide Conservation program at the Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory in Florida highlights the growing success of institutional and academic research in the field of marine ornamental aquaculture.

Featherduster Blenny from the Gulf of Mexico, successfully bred by hobbyist Michael Hoang. Image: JIm Garin.

Featherduster Blenny from the Gulf of Mexico, successfully bred by hobbyist Michael Hoang. Image: JIm Garin.


As for public aquariums, Noel Heinsohn of the Long Island Aquarium became the first person to successfully raise the beautiful Lyretail Anthias, Pseudanthias squamipinnis. This was the first reported success within the Anthiinae subfamily. One of the accomplishments that slipped under the public radar is the breeding of the Longspined Porcupinefish, Diodon holocanthus, at the Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium. Jennifer Dancico and Josie Romasco share joint responsibility for this accomplishment, which was supported by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) that funded larval fish workshops hosted by the New England Aquarium and Roger Williams University. Additionally, Monika Schmuck reports successes at the New England Aquarium rearing both the Planehead Filefish, Stephanolepis hispidus, and the Dusky Pipefish, Syngnathus floridae, using techniques from these workshops. Several other successes have occurred as a result of these workshops, and we hope to highlight them as soon as we are given permission to do so. Progress was made in New Zealand, as well: Kelley Tarlton of the Sea Life Aquarium in Auckland announced the first success with the rare Spiny Seadragon, Solegnathus spinosissimus. Not only is Sea Life the first institution to put adults on display, but the Aquarium is also raising offspring.

World's first captive-bred surgeonfishes: Juvenile Yellow Tangs by the hundreds at Hawaii's Oceanic Institute. Image: Chad Callan/OI Rising Tide.

World’s first captive-bred surgeonfishes: Juvenile Yellow Tangs by the hundreds at Hawaii’s Oceanic Institute. Image: Chad Callan/OI Rising Tide.

The crown jewel on this year’s list has to be the Yellow Tang, Zebrasoma flavescens (see CORAL Magazine, January February 2016, page 36, ). After decades of trial and error, this much-sought-after species has been successfully bred in captivity at the Oceanic Institute in Waimanalo, Hawaii, in a joint project with Rising Tide Conservation. A supply of aquacultured Yellow Tangs, one of the most popular fishes in the hobby, has been on many aquarists’ wish lists for some time. This breakthrough bodes well for the future propagation of other members of the genus and of the surgeonfish family, including the Pacific Blue Tang, Paracanthurus hepatus, which is reported to be overharvested in a number of collection areas. (See Ret Talbot’s report and essay, CORAL Magazine, Jan/Feb 2016, page 104.)

All in all, it is astonishing to see the major strides that were taken and the boundaries that were crossed during the past year, but it is vital to know there is a bigger picture. While captive breeding is a high priority for the hobby and the trade, it must be coupled with regulated, sustainable wild fisheries in order for both to remain viable and diverse.


Marine Breeders Initiative database of species bred in captivity:

Weeks, Linton. 2009. 10 Reasons Why We Love Making Lists.

IMLS Grant to New England Aquarium & Roger Williams University:


Get the full report in print, including more stunning images as a CORAL Magazine subscriber. Don’t miss out, subscribe today!

The new 2016 Captive Bred Marine Fish Species List now supersedes the 2015 list, the 2014 list and the 2013 list. Color-coded perceived availability in the United States during 2015 has been included this year:


Orange  Common Name = new to the list this year.
Pink Common Name = new to the list this year, but as a priorly overlooked accomplishment
Green = Commonly Available. Easy to find as a captive-bred fish, often from more than one source, throughout 2015 and/or into 2016.
Blue – Moderate to Low. Might have taken some searching, and availability may have been limited, but was reasonably obtainable as a captive-bred fish in 2015.
Purple = Scarce. Generally only one source or breeder is known, and potentially only a handful of specimens may have been available. You may have “had to know someone” or even know the breeder directly in order to obtain them as captive-bred fish during 2015.
Black = None. The authors and consulted parties were unaware of any retail availability of this species from a captive-bred source during 2015.


Angelfishes (Pomacanthidae)

Apolemichthys arcuatus, Bandit Angelfish

Apolemichthys trimaculatus, Flagfin Angelfish

Centropyge acanthops, African pygmy Angelfish

Centropyge argi, Cherub Angelfish

Centropyge colini,  Collins or Cocos Keeling Angelfish

Centropyge debelius, Debelius Angelfish

Centropyge fisheri, Fisher’s Angelfish

Centropyge flavissima, Lemonpeel Angelfish

Centropyge interruptus, Japanese Pygmy Angel

Centropyge joculator, Joculator Angelfish

Centropyge loricula, Flame Angelfish

Centropyge multicolor, Multicolor Angelfish

Centropyge resplendens, Resplendent Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus, Maze Angelfish

Chaetodonotplus duboulayi, Scribbled Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis, Bluestriped Angelfish

Genicanthus personatus, Masked Angelfish

Genicanthus watenabei, Blackedged Angelfish

Holacanthus clarionensis, Clarion Angelfish

Holacanthus passer, Passer or King Angelfish

Paracentropyge multifasciata, Multibar Angelfish

Paracentropyge venusta, Purplemask Angelfish

Pomacanthus annularis, Annularis Angelfish

Pomacanthus arcuatus, Gray Angelfish

Pomacanthus asfur, Asfur Angelfish

Pomacanthus maculosus, Yellowbar Angelfish

Pomacanthus navarchus, Majestic or Blue Girdled Angelfish

Pomacanthus paru, French Angelfish

Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Koran Angelfish


Anthias (Serranidae)

Pseudanthias squamipinnis, Lyretail Anthias


Assessors (Plesiopidae) 

Assessor flavissimus, Yellow Assessor

Assessor macneilli, Blue Assessor

Assessor randalli, Randal’s Assessor


Basslets (Serranidae) 

Liopropoma carmabi, Candy Basslet

Liopropoma rubre, Swissguard Basslet


Batfishes (Ephippidae) 

Chaetodipterus faber, Atlantic Spadefish

Platax bativianus, Zebra Batfish

Platax pinnatus, Pinnatus Batfish

Platax orbicularis, Orbiculate Batfish


Blennies (Blenniidae) 

Chasmodes bosquianus, Striped Blenny

Ecsenius gravieri, Red Sea Mimic Blenny

Ecsenius bicolor, Bicolor Blenny

Enchelyurus flavipes, Goldentail Comb-tooth Blenny

Hypleurochilus multifilis, Featherduster Blenny

Hypsoblennius hentz, Feather Blenny

Meiacanthus atrodorsalis, Forktail Blenny

Meiacanthus bundoon, Bundoon Blenny

Meiacanthus grammistes, Striped Fang Blenny

Meicanthus kamohari, Kamohara Blenny

Meiacanthus mossambicus, Mozambique Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus nigrolineatus, Blackline Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus oualanensis, Canary Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus smithi, Disco Blenny

Meiacanthus tongaensis, Fang Blenny (Tonga)

Parablennius marmoreus, Seaweed Blenny

Petroscirtes breviceps, Mimic Fang Blenny

Salaria pavo, Peacock Blenny

Scartella cristata, Molly Miller Blenny


Boxfishes (Ostraciidae)

Acanthostracion quadricornis, Scrawled Cowfish


Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae)

Chaetodon klienii, Klien’s, Orange or Sunburst Butterflyfish


Cardinalfishes (Apogonidae)

Apogon notatus, Spotnape Cardinalfish

Apogonichthyoides melas, Black Cardinalfish

Apogonichthyoides nigripinnis, Bullseye Cardinalfish

Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus, 5 Lined Cardinalfish

Fowleria flammea, Red Stop Light Cardinalfish

Nectamia bandanensis, Bigeye Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus compressus, Ochre-striped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus cyanosoma, Yellowstriped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus margaritophorus, Copper Lined Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus quadrifasciatus, Two-striped Cardinalfish

Pterapogon kauderni, Banggai Cardinalfish

Pterapogon mirifica, Sailfin Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia nematoptera, Pajama Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia orbicularis, Orbic Cardinalfish

Zoramia leptacantha, Threadfin Cardinalfish


Marine Catfishes (Plotosidae)

Plotosus lineatus, Striped Eel Catfish


Clingfishes (Gobiesocidae) 

Gobiesox punctulatus, Stippled Clingfish

Gobiesox strumosus, Skilletfish


Clownfishes (Pomacentridae) 

Amphiprion akallopisos, Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion akindynos, Barrier Reef Clownfish

Amphiprion allardi, Allard’s Clownfish

Amphiprion barberi, Fiji Barberi Clownfish

Amphiprion bicinctus, Red Sea (Two-Barred) Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysogaster, Mauritian Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysopterus, Orangefin Anemonefish

Amphiprion clarkii, Clarkii Clownfish

Amphiprion ephippium, Red Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion frenatus, Tomato Clownfish

Amphiprion latezonatus, Wide Band Clownfish

Amphiprion latifasciatus, Madagascar Clownfish

Amphiprion leucokranos, Whitebonnet Clownfish

Amphiprion mccullochi, McCulloch’s Clownfish

Amphiprion melanopus, Cinnamon Clownfish

Amphiprion nigripes, Blackfinned Clownfish

Amphiprion ocellaris, Ocellaris Clownfish

Amphiprion percula, Percula Clownfish

Amphiprion perideraion, Pink Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion polymnus, Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion rubrocinctus, Australian Clownfish

Amphiprion sandaracinos, Orange Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion sebae, Sebae Clownfish

Amphiprion tricinctus, Three-Band Clownfish

Premnas biaculeatus, Maroon Clownfish


Convict Blennies (Pholidichthyidae) 

Pholidichthys leucotaenia, Convict Blenny, Engineer Goby


Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

Abudefduf saxatilis, Sergeant Major

Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Orange Line Chromis

Amblyglyphidodon aureus, Golden Damselfish

Amphyglyphidodon curacao, Staghorn Damselfish

Amblyglyphidodon ternatensis, Ternate Damselfish

Chromis nitida, Barrier Reef Chromis

Chromis viridis, Blue Green Chromis

Chrysiptera cyanea, Blue Devil Damselfish

Chrysiptera hemicyanea, Azure Damselfish

Chrysiptera parasema, Yellowtail Damselfish

Chrysiptera rex, King Demoiselle

Chrysiptera taupou, Fiji Blue Devil

Dascyllus albisella, Whitespot Damselfish, Hawaiian Dascyllus

Dascyllus aruanus, Three Stripe Damselfish

Dascyllus trimaculatus, Three Spot Domino Damselfish

Hypsypops rubicundus, Garibaldi Damselfish

Microspathodon chrysurus, Jewel Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon crossi, Cross’s Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon melas, Bowtie Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon nigroris, Black and Gold Chromis

Neopomacentrus bankieri, Lyretail Damselfish

Neopomacentrus cyanomos, Regal Damselfish

Neopomacentrus filamentosus, Brown Damselfish

Neopomacentrus nemurus, Yellow-Tipped Damselfish

Neopomacentrus violascens, Violet Demoiselle

Pomacentrus amboinensis, Ambon Damselfish

Pomacentrus caeruleus, Caerulean Damselfish

Pomacentrus coelestis, Neon Damselfish

Pomacentrus nagasakiensis, Nagasaki Damselfish

Pomacentrus pavo, Sapphire Damselfish


Dartfishes (Ptereleotridae) 

Nemateleotris decora, Purple Firefish

Parioglossus cf. dotui, Dotui Dartfish


Dottybacks (Pseudochromidae) 

Congrogadus subducens, Wolf Blenny

Cypho purpurascens, Oblique Lined Dottyback

Labracinus cyclophthalmus, Red Dottyback

Labracinus lineatus, Lined Dottyback

Manonichthys alleni, Allen’s Dottyback

Manonichthys polynemus, Longfin Dottyback

Manonichthys splendens, Splendid Dottyback

Ogilbyina novaehollandiae, Australian Pseudochromis

Oxycercichthys veliferus, Sailfin Dottyback

Pictichromis diadema, Diadem Dottyback

Pictichromis paccagnellae, Bicolor or Royal Dottyback

Pictichromis porphyrea, Magenta Dottyback

Pseudochromis aldabraensis, Neon Dottyback

Pseudochromis bitaeniatus, Double Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis cyanotaenia, Blue Bar Dottyback

Pseudochromis dilectus, Dilectus Dottyback

Pseudochromis elongatus, Red Head Elegant Dottyback

Pseudochromis flavivertex, Sunrise Dottyback

Pseudochromis fridmani, Orchid Dottyback

Pseudochromis fuscus, Dusky or Yellow Dottyback

Pseudochromis olivaceus, Olive Dottyback

Pseudochromis sankeyi, Sankey’s or Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis springeri, Springer’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis steenei, Flamehead or Steen’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis tapeinosoma, Blackmargin Dottyback

Pseudochromis tonozukai, Tono’s or Orange Peel Dottyback

Pseudoplesiops wassi, Fleck fin Dottyback


Dragonets (Callionymidae) 

Callionymus bairdi, Lancer Dragonet

Callionymus enneactis, Mosaic Dragonet

Synchiropus ocellatus, Scooter Blenny

Synchiropus picturatus, Spotted Mandarin

Synchiropus splendidus, Green Mandarin

Synchiropus stellatus, Red Scooter Blenny


Drums (Sciaenidae) 

Equetus lanceolatus, Jackknife Fish

Equetus punctatus, Spotted Drum

Pareques acuminatus, High Hat

Pareques umbrosus, Cubbyu


Filefishes (Monacanthidae) 

Acreichthys tomentosus, Bristletail Filefish

Acreichthys radiata, Radiated Filefish

Oxymonacanthus longirostris, Orange Spotted Filefish

Rudarius ercodes, Whitespotted Pygmy Filefish

Stephanolepis hispidus, Planehead Filefish


Flagtails (Kuhliidae)

Kuhlia mugil, Barred Flagtail


Frogfishes (Antennariidae) 

Rhycherus filamentosus, Tasseled Frogfish


Gobies (Gobiidae) 

Amblygobius linki, Link’s Goby

Amblygobius phalaena, Banded Sleeper Goby

Coryphopterus personatus, Masked Goby

Cryptocentroides gobiodes, Crested Oyster Goby

Cryptocentrus cinctus, Yellow Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus fasciatus, Y-Bar Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus leptocephalus, Pink-Speckled Shrimp Goby

Cryptocentrus lutheri, Luther’s Prawn-Goby

Elacatinus chancei, Shortstripe Goby

Elacatinus evelynae, Golden Neon or Sharknose Goby

Elacatinus figaro, Barber Goby

Elacatinus genie, Cleaning Goby

Elacatinus horsti, Yellowline Goby

Elacatinus louisae, Spotlight Goby

Elacatinus multifasciatus, Green Banded Goby

Elacatinus oceanops, Neon Goby

Elacatinus prochilos, Broadstripe Goby

Elacatinus puncticulatus, Red Headed Goby

Elacatinus randalli, Yellownose Goby

Elacatinus xanthiprora, Golden Goby

Eviota atriventrisBlackbelly Dwarfgoby

Eviota bifasciataTwostripe Eviota

Eviota nigriventrisRed Neon Eviota Goby

Eviota punctulataFinespot Eviota

Fusigobius pallidus, Transparent Cave Goby or Pale Sandgoby

Gobiodon citrinus, Citron Clown Goby

Gobiodon okinawae, Okinawan Goby

Gobiopsis quinquecincta, Jaguar Goby

Gobiosoma bosc, Naked Goby

Koumansetta hectori, Hector’s Goby

Koumansetta rainfordi, Rainford’s Goby

Lythrypnus dalli, Catalina Goby

Priolepis cincta, Girdled Goby

Tigrigobius macrodon, Tiger Goby (formerly Elacatinus macrodon)


Grammas (Grammatidae) 

Gramma loreto, Royal Gramma

Gramma melacara, Blackcap Basslet

Lipogramma klayi, Bicolor Basslet


Groupers (Serranidae) 

Chromileptes altivelisPanther or Humpback Grouper

Epinephelus lanceolatus, Giant or Bumblebee Grouper

Pectropomus leopardus, Coral Trout

Serranus subligarius, Belted Sandfish


Grunts (Haemulidae) 

Anisotremus virginicus, Porkfish

Haemulon chrysargyreum, Smallmouth Grunt

Haemulon flavolineatum, French Grunt


Hamlets (Serranidae) 

Hypoplectrus gemma, Blue Hamlet

Hypoplectrus guttavarius, Shy Hamlet

Hypoplectrus unicolor, Butter Hamlet


Jacks (Carangidae) 

Gnathanodon speciosus, Golden Trevally, Pilot Fish

Selene vomer, Lookdown


Jawfishes (Opistognathidae) 

Opistognathus aurifrons, Pearly Jawfish

Opistognathus macrognathus, Banded Jawfish

Opistognathus punctatus, Finespotted Jawfish


Labrasomid Blennies (Labrisomidae)

Paraclinus grandicomis, Horned Blenny


Pipefishes (Syngnathidae) 

Doryrhamphus excisus, Bluestripe Pipefish

Doryrhamphus janssi, Janss’s Pipefish

Dunckerocampus baldwini, Flame Pipefish, Red Striped Pipefish

Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus, Ringed Pipefish

Dunckerocampus naia, Naia Pipefish

Dunckerocampus pessuliferus, Yellow Banded Pipefish

Haliichthys taeniophorus, Ribboned Pipefish

Syngnathoides biaculeatus, Alligator pipefish

Syngnathus acus, Greater pipefish

Syngnathus floridae, Dusky Pipefish

Syngnathus fuscus, Northern Pipefish

Syngnathus leptorhynchus, Bay Pipefish

Syngnathus scovelli, Gulf Pipefish

Syngnathus typhle, Broadnosed Pipefish


Porcupinefishes (Diodontidae)

Diodon holocanthusLongspined Porcupinefish


Puffers (Tetraodontidae) 

Arthoron nigropunctatus, Dog-faced Pufferfish

Canthigaster rostrata, Sharpnose Puffer

Lagocephalus spadiceus, Half-Smooth Golden Puffer

Sphoeroides annulatus, Bullseye Pufferfish

Sphoeroides maculatus, Northern Puffer


Rabbitfishes (Siganidae) 

Siganus canaliculatus, White-Spotted Spinefoot

Siganus fuscescensMottled spinefoot

Siganus guttatus, Oranged-spotted Rabbitfish

Siganus lineatus, Golden-Lined Spinefoot

Siganus rivulatus, Marbled Spinefoot

Siganus vermiculatus, Vermiculated Rabbitfish


Roundheads & Bettas (Plesiopidae) 

Calloplesiops altivelis, Marine Betta, Comet

Plesiops corallicolaBluegill longfin

Trachinops taeniatus, Eastern Hulafish


Seadragons (Syngnathidae) 

Solegnathus spinosissimus, Spiny Seadragon

Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, Common or Weedy Seadragon


Seahorses (Syngnathidae) 

Hippocampus abdominalis, Bigbelly Seashorse

Hippocampus algiricus, West African Seahorse

Hippocampus angustus, Western Spiny Seahorse

Hippocampus barbouri, Barbour’s Seahorse

Hippocampus bargibanti, Bargibant’s Seahorse

Hippocampus breviceps, Short-Head Seahorse

Hippocampus capensis, Knysna Seahorse

Hippocampus comes, Tiger Tail Seahorse

Hippocampus coronatus, Crowned Seahorse

Hippocampus erectus, Lined Seahorse

Hippocampus fisheri, Fisher’s Seahorse

Hippocampus fuscus, Sea Pony

Hippocampus guttulatus, Long-Snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus hippocampus, Short Snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus histrix, Thorny Seahorse

Hippocampus ingens, Pacific Seahorse

Hippocampus kelloggi, Great Seahorse

Hippocampus kuda, Yellow or Common Seahorse (Hippocampus taeniopterus, currently considered a synonym of H. kuda, has also been reared)

Hippocampus patagonicus, Patagonian Seahorse

Hippocampus procerus, High-Crown Seahorse

Hippocampus reidi, Brazilian or Longsnout Seahorse

Hippocampus spinosissimus, Hedgehog seahorse

Hippocampus tuberculatus, Knobby Seahorse

Hippocampus trimaculatus, Longnose Seahorse

Hippocampus whitei, White’s Seahorse

Hippocampus zosterae, Dwarf Seahorse


Sharks, Bamboo (Hemiscylliidae) 

Chiloscyllium hasseltii, Hasselt’s Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Whitespotted Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium punctatum, Brownbanded Bamboo Shark

Hemiscyllium hallistromi, Papuan Epaulette Shark

Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Epaulette Shark


Sharks, Bullhead (Heterodontidae) 

Heterodontus francisci, Horn Shark


Sharks, Cat (Scyliorhinidae)

Atelomycterus marmoratus, Coral Catshark


Shrimpfishes (Centriscidae) 

Aeoliscus strigatus, Razorfish, Shrimpfish


Snappers (Lutjanidae) 

Lutjanus sebae, Red Emperor Snapper


Whiptail Rays (Dasyatidae) 

Taeniura lymma, Bluespot Stingray


Tangs & Surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae)

Zebrasoma flavescens, Yellow Tang


Toadfishes (Batrachoididae) 

Allenbatrachus grunniens, Grunting Toadfish

Opsanus tau, Oyster Toadfish


Triggerfishes (Balistidae) 

Balistes vetula, Queen Triggerfish

Balistoides conspicillum, Clown Triggerfish

Xanthichthys mento, Crosshatch Triggerfish


Triplefins (Tripterygiidae)

Enneapterygius etheostomus, Snake Blenny


Wrasses (Labridae) 

Halichoeres melanurus, Melanurus or Hoeven’s Wrasse

Halichoeres ornatissimus, Ornate, Ornamented, or Hawaiian Christmas Wrasse

Labroides dimidiatus, Cleaner Wrasse

Lachnolaimus maximus, Hogfish

Parajulis poecilepterus, Rainbow Wrasse

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