CORAL Magazine’s Captive Bred Marine Fish Species List for 2014

17 Dec, 2013

Green Chromis, although frequent spawners in the reef aquarium, finally made the Captive-Bred List in 2013.

Green Chromis, although frequent spawners in the reef aquarium, finally made the Captive-Bred List in 2013. Image by Richard Ling/Wikipedia.

Captive-breeding: State of the Art 2014

CORAL Magazine’s updated and definitive captive-bred marine aquarium fish species list current through December 17th, 2013, by Tal Sweet.

 

As soon as CORAL Magazine’s 2013 Captive-Bred Marine Fish Species List was published last year, new additions started to show up. Several species that were left off the 2013 list have now been added, as well as new species that were confirmed as being captive-bred during the year. More than 30 new species have been added to the list, bringing the total to over 250.

While there haven’t been a lot of new species released commercially by the large aquaculture facilities this year, there have been some exciting developments.

From ORA:

  • Black Cardinalfish (Apogonichthyoides melas)
  • Black Watchman Goby (Cryptocentrus fasciatus)
  • Randall’s Assessor (Assessor randalli)

From Bali Aquarich:

  • Cleaner Wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus)
  • Clarion Angelfish (Holacanthus clarionensis)
  • Maze Angelfish (Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus)

From Rising Tide:

  • Green Chromis (Chromis viridis)
  • French Grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum)

One of the more exciting additions to the list is the Red-Striped Pipefish (Dunckerocampus baldwini) bred by Jim Welsh in Northern California. Welsh’s work with the species yielded market-sized offspring in less than six months from the beginning of the project. (A report on this project will appear in the March/April 2014 issue of CORAL.)

Following up her success last year with Genicanthus watenabei, Karen Brittain in Hawaii has continued to pursue angelfish breeding projects. She started off revisiting Reef Culture Technology’s success with Centropyge interruptus as part of her “A Girlfriend for Fabio” IndieGoGo campaign, and promising progress was made in the second half of 2013 pursuing a species first with Paracentropyge venusta. Hopefully we will be able to put the Venustus Angelfish the list next year.

During 2013, in an effort to narrow down the definition of “what is” a captive-bred marine fish (along with other trade jargon), Richard Ross dedicated an issue of his Skeptical Reefkeeping series to the subject. See http://packedhead.net/2013/skeptical-reefkeeping-viii-animal-origins-some-proposed-definitions/. Ross, along with Kevin Erickson, has compiled a detailed list of terms and definitions used when referring to the origins of our marine livestock. The Marine Breeding Initiative (MBI) is in agreement with this “captive-bred” definition: “Captive bred fishes are organisms that were spawned and raised in tanks or other captive facilities on land.” We augment this to simply state that captive-breeding, to be regarded as truly successful, must at a minimum raise offspring to a juvenile, marketable size.

The term “tank-raised” is often used in the freshwater aquarium livestock trade and likely predates any use of the phrase in the marine trade. In the freshwater trade, “tank-raised” is often synonymous with the aforementioned definition of “captive-bred” marine fish, but over the past several years “tank-raised” has become a very confusing, and perhaps unreliable or even abused, term when applied to marine fishes. Given the advent of harvesting the pre-settlement larvae of wild fishes, many species of marine fishes are now captive-grown without being captive-spawned. These fishes should, it is widely agreed, be sold as “tank-raised” and never as “captive-bred” or “CB.” Per Ross and Erickson, “tank-raised” carries its own definition in the marine trade: “Animals from eggs or pre-settlement larvae collected in the wild, then grown or raised in tanks in facilities on land.”

As more focus is being placed on pelagic-spawning species such as tangs, butterflyfishes, and angelfishes, it is likely that we will be seeing a much broader range of captive-bred fishes available in the near future. It is truly an exciting time in the realm of captive breeding of marine fishes, and we look forward to what the future has in store.

This list is as up to date as possible at the time of publication and was compiled with the help of Live Aquaria, ORA, Sustainable Aquatics, and Matthew Pedersen.

Tal Sweet is a marine fish breeder whose company, Fishtal Propagations, produces clownfishes, dottybacks, gobies, and Banggai Cardinalfish in Waterford, Michigan. He is one of the founders of the Marine Breeding Initiative (MBI).

The new 2014 Captive Bred Marine Fish Species List now supersedes the 2013 list.  Color coded perceived availability during 2013 has been included this year:

 

Green = Commonly Available. Easy to find as a captive-bred fish, often from more than one source, throughout 2013.

Blue – Moderate to Low. Might haven taken some searching, and availability may have been limited, but was reasonably obtainable as a captive-bred fish in 2013.

Purple = Scarce. Generally only one source or breeder is known, and potentially only a handful of specimens may have been available. You may have “had to know someone” or even know the breeder directly in order to obtain them as captive-bred fish during 2013.

Black = None. The authors and consulted parties were unaware of any retail availability of this species from a captive-bred source during 2013.

Angelfishes (Pomacanthidae)

Apolemichthys arcuatus, Bandit Angelfish

Centropyge acanthops, African pygmy Angelfish

Centropyge argi, Cherub Angelfish

Centropyge colini,  Collins or Cocos Keeling Angelfish

Centropyge debelius, Debelius Angelfish

Centropyge fisheri, Fisher’s Angelfish

Centropyge flavissima, Lemonpeel Angelfish

Centropyge interruptus, Japanese Pygmy Angel

Centropyge joculator, Joculator Angelfish

Centropyge loricula, Flame Angelfish

Centropyge multicolor, Multicolor Angelfish

Centropyge resplendens, Resplendent Angelfish

Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus, Maze Angelfish*,**

Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis, Bluestriped Angelfish*

Genicanthus personatus, Masked Angelfish

Genicanthus watenabei, Blackedged Angelfish

Holacanthus clarionensis, Clarion Angelfish*

Paracentropyge multifasciata, Multibar Angelfish

Pomacanthus annularis, Annularis Angelfish

Pomacanthus arcuatus, Gray Angelfish

Pomacanthus asfur, Asfur Angelfish

Pomacanthus maculosus, Yellowbar Angelfish

Pomacanthus paru, French Angelfish

Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Koran Angelfish

 

Basslets (Serranidae) 

Liopropoma carmabi, Candy Basslet

Liopropoma rubre, Swissguard Basslet

 

Batfishes (Ephippidae) 

Chaetodipterus faber, Atlantic Spadefish

Platax pinnatus, Pinnatus Batfish

Platax orbicularis, Orbiculate Batfish

 

Blennies (Blenniidae) 

Chasmodes bosquianus, Striped Blenny

Enchelyurus flavipes, Goldentail Comb-tooth Blenny

Hypsoblennius hentz, Feather Blenny

Meiacanthus atrodorsalis, Forktail Blenny

Meiacanthus bundoon, Bundoon Blenny

Meiacanthus grammistes, Striped Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus mossambicus, Mozambique Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus nigrolineatus, Blackline Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus oualanensis, Canary Fang Blenny

Meiacanthus smithi, Disco Blenny

Meiacanthus tongaensis, Fang Blenny (Tonga)

Parablennius marmoreus, Seaweed Blenny

Petroscirtes breviceps, Mimic Fang Blenny

Salaria pavo, Peacock Blenny

Scartella cristata, Molly Miller Blenny

 

Boxfishes (Ostraciidae)

Acanthostracion quadricornis, Scrawled Cowfish

 

Cardinalfishes (Apogonidae)

Apogonichthyoides melas, Black Cardinalfish*

Apogonichthyoides nigripinnis, Bullseye Cardinalfish*

Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus, 5 Lined Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus compressus, Ochre-striped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus cyanosoma, Yellowstriped Cardinalfish

Ostorhinchus margaritophorus, Copper Lined Cardinalfish

Pterapogon kauderni, Banggai Cardinalfish

Pterapogon mirifica, Sailfin Cardinalfish

Sphaeramia nematoptera, Pajama Cardinalfish

Zoramia leptacantha, Threadfin Cardinalfish

 

Marine Catfishes (Plotosidae)

Plotosus lineatus, Striped Eel Catfish

 

Clingfishes (Gobiesocidae) 

Gobiesox punctulatus, Stippled Clingfish

Gobiesox strumosus, Skilletfish

 

Clownfishes (Pomacentridae) 

Amphiprion akallopisos, Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion akindynos, Barrier Reef Clownfish

Amphiprion allardi, Allard’s Clownfish

Amphiprion barberi, Fiji Barberi Clownfish

Amphiprion bicinctus, Red Sea (Two-Barred) Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysogaster, Mauritian Clownfish

Amphiprion chrysopterus, Orangefin Anemonefish

Amphiprion clarkii, Clarkii Clownfish

Amphiprion ephippium, Red Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion frenatus, Tomato Clownfish

Amphiprion latezonatus, Wide Band Clownfish

Amphiprion leucokranos, Whitebonnet Clownfish

Amphiprion mccullochi, McCulloch’s Clownfish

Amphiprion melanopus, Cinnamon Clownfish

Amphiprion nigripes, Blackfinned Clownfish

Amphiprion ocellaris, Ocellaris Clownfish

Amphiprion percula, Percula Clownfish

Amphiprion perideraion, Pink Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion polymnus, Saddleback Clownfish

Amphiprion rubrocinctus, Australian Clownfish

Amphiprion sandaracinos, Orange Skunk Clownfish

Amphiprion sebae, Sebae Clownfish

Amphiprion tricinctus, Three-Band Clownfish

Premnas biaculeatus, Maroon Clownfish

 

Convict Blennies (Pholidichthyidae) 

Pholidichthys leucotaenia, Convict Blenny, Engineer Goby

 

Damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

Abudefduf saxatilis, Sergeant Major

Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Orange Line Chromis

Amblyglyphidodon aureus, Golden Damselfish

Amblyglyphidodon ternatensis, Ternate Damselfish

Chromis nitida, Barrier Reef Chromis

Chromis viridis, Blue Green Chromis

Chrysiptera cyanea, Blue Devil Damselfish

Chrysiptera hemicyanea, Azure Damselfish

Chrysiptera parasema, Yellowtail Damselfish

Chrysiptera rex, King Demoiselle

Chrysiptera taupou, Fiji Blue Devil

Dascyllus albisella, Whitespot Damselfish, Hawaiian Dascyllus

Dascyllus aruanus, Three Stripe Damselfish

Dascyllus trimaculatus, Three Spot Domino Damselfish

Hypsypops rubicundus, Garibaldi Damselfish

Microspathodon chrysurus, Jewel Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon crossi, Cross’s Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon melas, Bowtie Damselfish

Neoglyphidodon nigroris, Black and Gold Chromis

Neopomacentrus bankieri, Lyretail Damselfish

Neopomacentrus cyanomos, Regal Damselfish

Neopomacentrus filamentosus, Brown Damselfish

Neopomacentrus nemurus, Yellow-Tipped Damselfish

Neopomacentrus violascens, Violet Demoiselle

Pomacentrus amboinensis, Ambon Damselfish

Pomacentrus caeruleus, Caerulean Damselfish

Pomacentrus coelestis, Neon Damselfish

Pomacentrus nagasakiensis, Nagasaki Damselfish

Pomacentrus pavo, Sapphire Damselfish

 

Dartfishes (Ptereleotridae) 

Parioglossus cf. dotui, Dotui Dartfish

 

Dottybacks (Pseudochromidae) 

Congrogadus subducens, Wolf Blenny

Cypho purpurascens, Oblique Lined Dottyback

Labracinus cyclophthalmus, Red Dottyback

Labracinus lineatus, Lined Dottyback

Manonichthys alleni, Allen’s Dottyback

Manonichthys polynemus, Longfin Dottyback

Manonichthys splendens, Splendid Dottyback

Ogilbyina novaehollandiae, Australian Pseudochromis

Oxycercichthys veliferus, Sailfin Dottyback

Pictichromis diadema, Diadem Dottyback

Pictichromis paccagnellae, Bicolor or Royal Dottyback

Pictichromis porphyrea, Magenta Dottyback

Pseudochromis aldabraensis, Neon Dottyback

Pseudochromis bitaeniatus, Double Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis cyanotaenia, Blue Bar Dottyback

Pseudochromis dilectus, Dilectus Dottyback*

Pseudochromis elongatus, Red Head Elegant Dottyback

Pseudochromis flavivertex, Sunrise Dottyback

Pseudochromis fridmani, Orchid Dottyback

Pseudochromis fuscus, Dusky or Yellow Dottyback

Pseudochromis olivaceus, Olive Dottyback

Pseudochromis sankeyi, Sankey’s or Striped Dottyback

Pseudochromis springeri, Springer’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis steenei, Flamehead or Steen’s Dottyback

Pseudochromis tapeinosoma, Blackmargin Dottyback

Pseudochromis tonozukai, Tono’s or Orange Peel Dottyback

 

Dragonets (Callionymidae) 

Callionymus bairdi, Lancer Dragonet

Callionymus enneactis, Mosaic Dragonet

Synchiropus ocellatus, Scooter Blenny

Synchiropus picturatus, Spotted Mandarin

Synchiropus splendidus, Green Mandarin

Synchiropus stellatus, Red Scooter Blenny

 

Drums (Sciaenidae) 

Equetus lanceolatus, Jackknife Fish

Equetus punctatus, Spotted Drum

Pareques acuminatus, High Hat

Pareques umbrosus, Cubbyu

 

Filefishes (Monacanthidae) 

Acreichthys tomentosus, Bristletail Filefish

Oxymonacanthus longirostris, Orange Spotted Filefish

 

Flagtails (Kuhliidae)

Kuhlia mugil, Barred Flagtail*

 

Frogfishes (Antennariidae) 

Rhycherus filamentosus, Tasseled Frogfish

 

Gobies (Gobiidae) 

Amblygobius phalaena, Banded Sleeper Goby

Coryphopterus personatus, Masked Goby

Cryptocentroides gobiodes, Crested Oyster Goby*

Cryptocentrus cinctus, Yellow Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus fasciatus, Y-Bar Watchman Goby

Cryptocentrus leptocephalus, Pink-Speckled Shrimp Goby

Cryptocentrus lutheri, Luther’s Prawn-Goby

Elacatinus chancei, Shortstripe Goby

Elacatinus evelynae, Golden Neon or Sharknose Goby

Elacatinus figaro, Barber Goby

Elacatinus genie, Cleaning Goby

Elacatinus horsti, Yellowline Goby

Elacatinus louisae, Spotlight Goby

Elacatinus macrodon, Tiger Goby

Elacatinus multifasciatus, Green Banded Goby

Elacatinus oceanops, Neon Goby

Elacatinus prochilos, Broadstripe Goby

Elacatinus puncticulatus, Red Headed Goby

Elacatinus randalli, Yellownose Goby

Elacatinus xanthiprora, Golden Goby

Gobiodon citrinus, Citron Clown Goby

Gobiodon okinawae, Okinawan Goby

Gobiosoma bosc, Naked Goby

Koumansetta hectori, Hector’s Goby

Koumansetta rainfordi, Rainford’s Goby

Lythrypnus dalli, Catalina Goby

 

Grammas (Grammatidae) 

Gramma loreto, Royal Gramma

Gramma melacara, Blackcap Basslet

Lipogramma klayi, Bicolor Basslet

 

Groupers (Serranidae) 

Chromileptes altivelisPanther or Humpback Grouper

Epinephelus lanceolatus, Giant or Bumblebee Grouper

Pectropomus leopardus, Coral Trout*

Serranus subligarius, Belted Sandfish

 

Grunts (Haemulidae) 

Anisotremus virginicus, Porkfish

Haemulon flavolineatum, French Grunt*

 

Hamlets (Serranidae) 

Hypoplectrus gemma, Blue Hamlet

Hypoplectrus guttavarius, Shy Hamlet

Hypoplectrus unicolor, Butter Hamlet

 

Jacks (Carangidae) 

Gnathanodon speciosus, Golden Trevally, Pilot Fish

Selene vomer, Lookdown

 

Jawfishes (Opistognathidae) 

Opistognathus aurifrons, Pearly Jawfish

Opistognathus macrognathus, Banded Jawfish

Opistognathus punctatus, Finespotted Jawfish*

 

Labrasomid Blennies (Labrisomidae)

Paraclinus grandicomis, Horned Blenny

 

Pipefishes (Syngnathidae) 

Doryrhamphus excisus, Bluestripe Pipefish

Doryrhamphus janssi, Janss’s Pipefish

Dunckerocampus baldwini, Flame Pipefish, Red Striped Pipefish*

Dunckerocampus dactyliophorusRinged Pipefish

Dunckerocampus pessuliferus, Yellow Banded Pipefish

Haliichthys taeniophorus, Ribboned Pipefish

Syngnathus scovelli, Gulf Pipefish

 

Puffers (Tetraodontidae) 

Arthoron nigropunctatus, Dog-faced Pufferfish*

Canthigaster rostrata, Sharpnose Puffer

Lagocephalus spadiceus, Half-Smooth Golden Puffer

Sphoeroides annulatus, Bullseye Pufferfish*

Sphoeroides maculatus, Northern Puffer

 

Rabbitfishes (Siganidae) 

Siganus canaliculatus, White-Spotted Spinefoot

Siganus guttatus, Oranged-spotted Rabbitfish*

Siganus lineatus, Golden-Lined Spinefoot

Siganus rivulatus, Marbled Spinefoot

Siganus vermiculatus, Vermiculated Rabbitfish*

 

Assessors (Plesiopidae) 

Assessor flavissimus, Yellow Assessor

Assessor macneilli, Blue Assessor

Assessor randalli, Randal’s Assessor

Calloplesiops altivelis, Marine Betta, Comet

Trachinops taeniatus, Eastern Hulafish*

 

Seadragons (Syngnathidae) 

Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, Common Seadragon

 

Seahorses (Syngnathidae) 

Hippocampus abdominalis, Bigbelly Seashorse

Hippocampus barbouri, Barbour’s Seahorse

Hippocampus breviceps, Short-Head Seahorse

Hippocampus capensis, Knysna Seahorse

Hippocampus comes, Tiger Tail Seahorse

Hippocampus erectus, Lined Seahorse

Hippocampus fuscus, Sea Pony

Hippocampus histrix, Thorny Seahorse

Hippocampus ingens, Pacific Seahorse

Hippocampus kelloggi, Great Seahorse

Hippocampus kuda, Yellow or Common Seahorse

Hippocampus procerus, High-Crown Seahorse

Hippocampus reidi, Brazilian or Longsnout Seahorse

Hippocampus trimaculatus, Longnose Seahorse

Hippocampus whitei, White’s Seahorse

Hippocampus zosterae, Dwarf Seahorse

 

Bamboo Sharks (Hemiscylliidae) 

Chiloscyllium hasseltii, Hasselt’s Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Whitespotted Bamboo Shark

Chiloscyllium punctatum, Brownbanded Bamboo Shark

Hemiscyllium hallistromi, Papuan Epaulette Shark

Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Epaulette Shark

 

Cat Sharks (Scyliorhinidae)

Atelomycterus marmoratus, Coral Catshark*

 

Bullhead Sharks (Heterodontidae) 

Heterodontus francisci, Horn Shark

 

Shrimpfishes (Centriscidae) 

Aeoliscus strigatus, Razorfish, Shrimpfish

 

Snappers (Lutjanidae) 

Lutjanus sebae, Red Emperor Snapper

 

Whiptail Rays (Dasyatidae) 

Taeniura lymma, Bluespot Stingray

 

Toadfishes (Batrachoididae) 

Allenbatrachus grunniens, Grunting Toadfish

Opsanus tau, Oyster Toadfish

 

Triggerfishes (Balistidae) 

Balistes vetula, Queen Triggerfish

Xanthichthys mento, Crosshatch Triggerfish

 

Triplefins (Tripterygiidae)

Enneapterygius etheostomus, Snake Blenny

 

Wrasses (Labridae) 

Labroides dimidiatus, Cleaner Wrasse*

Parajulis poecilepterus, Rainbow Wrasse

Lachnolaimus maximus, Hogfish

 

*New to the list for 2013.  May have been first captive-bred in 2013, or may be a species accomplishment occurring prior to 2013, only coming to our attention or confirmed in 2013.

** Name validity of Chaetodontoplus cephalareticulatus is under debate; some consider the Maze Angelfish it to be a variant of C. chrysocephalus (the Orangeface Angelfish) or even a naturally occurring hybrid of one or more Chaetodontoplus spp.

Source: CORAL, Vol. 11, Number 1, January/February 2014

About the author

Reef To Rainforest
Reef To Rainforest

Reef to Rainforest Media, LLC is the publisher of award-winning magazines and books in the fields of aquarium keeping, aquatics, and marine science. It is the English-language publisher of CORAL and AMAZONAS Magazines and is based in Shelburne, Vermont, USA.

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